Dating is the process of identifying the banknote by its print run year.  Countries of the world, use different calendar systems from others, it is not universal, but have some commonalities.  In the Western part of the world, and most of Europe use the Gregorian calendar.  Below is a table of the different type of…


Foxing is the natural browning or yellowing of paper.  It is the aging stains on the banknote.  Good storage methods should be considered, for longevity and to prevent foxing. see screenshot below of Ecuador 100 sucres banknote with foxing showing.

Military Payment Certificates

These are notes issued for military servicemen in the USA, on  overseas countries.  They were issued from 1946-1973.


Emergency money (in German) also referred to as war time money.  It is issued by a either state or federal institution in a time of war, economic or political upheaval.  


The study, examination and collecting of private and public documents.  These include stock certificates, institutional cheques, bonds and old state treaties or contracts.


The banknote to be released for circulation, have samples of the design normally distributed between financial institutions. The purpose is  to review, study on how it look when it is publicaly released. As a standard it comes with special markings such as “overprint”, “cancellation” or show special serial numbers.


The act of learning, studying and collecting of paper money.  This includes the collection of legal tender in different forms such as paper, plastic, etc.

Pin Holes

Pin holes is the term used when a stack of notes are stapled or pinned together by a pin like object.  India was known to do this with their currency. Below is an example of pin holes applied to a stock of banknotes from India.  The pinholes are shown in the watermark (left/right side).   …


Printed object or pattern placed in the currency paper as a measure of checking for authenticity.